Dutch Golden Age

The Dutch Golden Age

The Dutch Golden Age saw religious and civic freedoms returned to a formerly oppressed population allowing a unique development in the arts.

In brief:

In 1568, the Dutch began their rebellion against Phillip II’s Spanish rule of The Netherlands. Seven Dutch provinces joined together and formed the Union of Utrecht. This led to the 80 Years War.

In 1648 with the Treaty of Westphalia, the war ended.

This saw the conclusion of the Spanish occupation of The Netherlands, consequently the removal of the Spanish Empire’s imposition of the Catholic Church’s Counter Reformation with its Inquisition, slaughtering, and economic sanctions and the birth of modern commerce, joint stock companies and trade. Along with this Protestant church’s influence allowed greater freedom of movement and self-expression, including in the arts.

The Protestant work ethic and Calvinism also resulted in high literacy and low interest rates evolving an educated population able and willing to work hard, trade and develop commercial structures and systems.

Hence, the availability of much money to indulge in the arts now produced by artists able to respond to personal freedoms and civic market demands without the hitherto strictures placed on the arts by the Counter Reformation.

Here we thus see the growth of the opportunities for the most famous Dutch artists. To develop their own unique styles and their choices of subject matter, most of which centred on ‘genre’ works i.e. ordinary people and scenes. Households, families, commerce e.g. harbours and windmills.

The video features some of these artists and they are hereby listed below:

Johannes Vermeer 1632-1675

Rembrandt van Rijn 1606-1669

Aelbert Cuyp 1620-1691

Frans Hals 1580-1666

Pieter de Hooch 1629-1684

Jan Steen 1626-1679

Jacob van Ruisdael 1628-1682

Jan van Goyen 1596-1656

Peter Lely 1618-1680

Gabriel Metsun 1629-1669

Jan Steen 1626-1679

Emanuel de Witte 1617-1692

The Dutch Golden Age

In brief:

In 1568, the Dutch began their rebellion against Phillip II’s Spanish rule of The Netherlands. Seven Dutch provinces joined together and formed the Union of Utrecht. This led to the 80 Years War.

In 1648 with the Treaty of Westphalia, the war ended.

This saw the conclusion of the Spanish occupation of The Netherlands, consequently the removal of the Spanish Empire’s imposition of the Catholic Church’s Counter Reformation with its Inquisition, slaughtering, and economic sanctions and the birth of modern commerce, joint stock companies and trade. Along with this Protestant church’s influence allowed greater freedom of movement and self-expression, including in the arts.

The Protestant work ethic and Calvinism also resulted in high literacy and low interest rates evolving an educated population able and willing to work hard, trade and develop commercial structures and systems.

Hence, the availability of much money to indulge in the arts now produced by artists able to respond to personal freedoms and civic market demands without the hitherto strictures placed on the arts by the Counter Reformation.

Here we thus see the growth of the opportunities for the most famous Dutch artists. To develop their own unique styles and their choices of subject matter, most of which centred on ‘genre’ works i.e. ordinary people and scenes. Households, families, commerce e.g. harbours and windmills.

The video features some of these artists and they are hereby listed below:

Johannes Vermeer 1632-1675

Rembrandt van Rijn 1606-1669

Aelbert Cuyp 1620-1691

Frans Hals 1580-1666

Pieter de Hooch 1629-1684

Jan Steen 1626-1679

Jacob van Ruisdael 1628-1682

Jan van Goyen 1596-1656

Peter Lely 1618-1680

Gabriel Metsun 1629-1669

Jan Steen 1626-1679

Emanuel de Witte 1617-1692

Keepin a careful eye out for invaders
Rembrandt van Rijn The Night Watch 1642